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[来源:www.dzhlzj.com] [作者:567zx] [日期:19-02-22] [浏览次数:]

镜子沿革
Mirror evolution
古代用黑曜石、金、银、水晶、铜、青铜,经过研磨抛光制成镜子。,埃及已有用于化妆的铜镜。公元 1世纪,开始有能照出人全身的大型镜。中世纪盛行与梳子同放在象牙或贵金属小盒中的便携小镜。12世纪末至13世纪
In ancient times, obsidian, gold, silver, crystal, copper and bronze were ground and polished to make mirrors. Egypt already has bronze mirrors for cosmetics. In the 1st century, there began to be large mirrors that could show people's whole body. Portable mirrors with combs in ivory or precious metal boxes prevailed in the Middle Ages. From the end of the 12th century to the 13th century
镜子初,出现以银片或铁片为背面的玻璃镜。文艺复兴时期威尼斯为制镜中心,所产镜子因质量高而负有盛名。16世纪发明了圆筒法制造板玻璃,同时发明了用汞在玻璃上贴附锡箔的锡汞齐法,金属镜逐渐减少。17世纪下半叶,法国发明用浇注法制平板玻璃,制出了高质量的大玻璃镜。镜子及其边框日益成为室内装饰。18世纪末制出大穿衣镜并且用于家具上。锡汞齐法虽然对人体有害,但一直延续应用到19世纪。1835年,德国化学家J.von莱比格发明化学镀银法,使玻璃镜的应用更加普及。中国在公元前2000年已有铜镜。但古代多以水照影,称盛水的铜器为鉴。汉代始改称鉴为镜。汉魏时期铜镜逐渐流行,并有全身镜。最初铜镜较薄,圆形带凸缘,背面有饰纹或铭文,背中央有半圆形钮,用以安放镜子,无柄,形成中国镜独特的风格。明代传入玻璃镜。清代乾隆(1736~1795)以后玻璃镜逐渐普及。日本及朝鲜最初由中国传入铜镜。日本在明治维新时玻璃镜开治普及。
At the beginning of the mirror, glass mirrors with silver or iron sheets on the back appeared. During the Renaissance, Venice was the center of making mirrors. The mirrors made in Venice were renowned for their high quality. In the 16th century, the cylindrical method was invented to make plate glass. At the same time, the tin amalgam method was invented to attach tin foil to glass with mercury. Metal mirrors gradually decreased. In the second half of the 17th century, France invented the method of casting flat glass, which produced high-quality large glass mirrors. Mirrors and their frames are increasingly becoming interior decoration. Large gowns were made in the late 18th century and used in furniture. Tin amalgamation is harmful to human body, but it has been applied in the 19th century. In 1835, German chemist J. von Leibigger invented the electroless silver plating method, which made the application of glass mirrors more popular. China had bronze mirrors in 2000 BC. However, in ancient times, water was mostly used as a mirror, which was called bronze wares containing water. The Han Dynasty began to change its name to mirror. During the Han and Wei Dynasties, bronze mirrors gradually became popular and had full-body mirrors. At first, the bronze mirror was thin, round with flange, decorative or inscription on the back, and semi-circular buttons in the center of the back. It was used to place the mirror without handle, forming the unique style of Chinese mirror. Glass mirrors were introduced into the Ming Dynasty. Glass mirrors were gradually popularized after Qianlong (1736-1795) in Qing Dynasty. Japan and Korea first introduced bronze mirrors from China. Glass mirrors were widely used in Meiji Restoration in Japan.

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